An optical fiber is a technology used for the transmission of data and information in the form of light pulses with the aid of plastic or glass fibers. Optical fibers are preferred in comparison to general copper wires in order to transmit information from one place to another because there is no electromagnetic interference in the former. Vacker Nigeria supplies a variety of optical cables to some of the major cities in Nigeria like: Lagos, Abuja, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, Aba, Ibadan and Kano. An optical fiber cable consists of a number of such strands of fibers working in unison for the transmission of data and information in the fastest mode possible. The individual strands of the cable are coated with layers of plastic within a protective tube so that it continues to work in places where it is used.
Basically, there are two major parts in an optical fiber cable namely: core and shell. These two components have a distinct refractive index which facilitates in total internal reflection. These components are so selected that there is a contrast in the refractive indices of the two hence resulting in total internal reflection. To protect the shell from being damaged, it is generally coated with a layer of polyimide. Several such layers form the cable. Since the information travel through the cable in the form of light, light absorbing glasses are put between the fibers so that there is minimum leakage of light from one fiber to another. This eventually mitigates the risk of undesired crosstalk amidst the fibers. Single mode fibers are used for long distance transmission while multimode optical fibers are used for a shorter range of transmission.
Capacity of Optical Fiber Cables:
A single optical fiber cable can have the potential of transferring 1 Petabit of data/information in one second (i.e. 1015 bits per second) over a distance of 50 Kilometers. Hence we can assume that a huge amount of data can be transmitted over a long distance in very less time. These days, optical fiber cables are commonly used by Internet Service Providers.
Modern optical fiber cables may consist of over thousands of such fibers in a cable and are very strong too.
Types of Optical Cables
Conductive Optical Fiber Cables:
- Conductive Optical Fiber Cables
- Conductive Optical Fiber Plenum Cables
- Conductive Optical Fiber General Use Cables
- Conductive Optical Fiber Riser Cables
Non-conductive Optical Fiber Cables
- Non-conductive Optical Fiber Cables
- Non-conductive Optical Fiber Plenum Cables
- Non-conductive Optical Fiber General Use Cables
- Non-conductive Optical Fiber Riser Cables
Optical Fiber Composite Overhead Ground Wire Cables
All-Dielectric Self-Supporting Cables
Material of the Cover:
The material of the cover is dependent on the application that it is purposed for. The material of the outer cover determines the following properties:
- Mechanical Robustness
- Aging (caused because of UV radiation)
- Resistance from oil
- And many more.
Some of the commonly used materials are as under:
|LSFH Polymer||It is halogen free and provides good UV resistance. It is considered good for indoor use.|
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)||Though it is not Halogen free, it provides good UV resistance. But it is being replaced by LSFH Polymer.|
|Polyethylene (PE)||It is halogen free with poor UV resistance. It is considered good for outdoor applications.|
|Polyurethane (PUR)||These are highly flexible halogen free cables.|
|Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)||These halogen free materials are good for indoor use and provide fair UV resistance.|
|Polyamide (PA)||These too are halogen free. It provides good UV resistance for Indoor use and poor resistance for outdoor use.|
In general, either glass or plastic is used for the composition of the optical fiber. Plastic fibers are used for shorter range of transmission and other consumer applications whereas glass fibers are used for medium to longer range of telecommunications.
These are hybrid optical fiber cables that are used outdoor in FTTA (Fiber-to-the-antenna) applications. Along with the hybrid optical fibers there are also electrical cables and the optical fiber in these cables carry information where the electric conductors transmit power. Under the outer jacket, these cables may have:
- Optical fibers
- Twisted elements
- Coaxial cables
- Electrical conductors
Vacker Nigeria is a reputed supplier of optical cables in Nigerian cities such as Lagos, Abuja, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, Aba, Ibadan and Kano.